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TitleAn Accented Cinema : Exilic and Diasporic Filmmaking
ISBN 139780691043920
CategoryArts - Film
File Size9.4 MB
Total Pages391
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
1. Situating Accented Cinema
Accented Filmmakers
	Exilic Filmmakers
	Diasporic Filmmakers
	Postcolonial Ethnic and Identity Filmmakers
Mapping Accented Cinema's Corpus
	Close-Up: Middle Eastern and North African Filmmakers
The Stylistic Approach
	Accented Style
	Language, Voice, Address
	Embedded Criticism
	Accented Structures of Feeling
	Tactile Optics
	Third Cinema Aesthetics
	Border Effects, Border Writing
	Authorship and Autobiographical Inscription
		Close-Up: Atom Egoyans Accented Style
2. Interstitial and Artisanal Mode of Production
Postindustrial Mode of Production
Accented Mode of Production
Interstitial Mode of Production
Multisource Funding and Coproduction
	Close-Up: Atom Egoyan
	Close-Up: Michel Khleifi
Distribution to Academic Institutions
	Close-Up: Women Make Movies
3. Collective Mode of Production
Ethnic Collectives: Asian Pacific American Film Collectives
	Close-Up: Nancy Tong and Christine Choys In the Nameof the Emperor (1995)
	Close-Up: Mira Nairs Salaam Bombay! (1988)
	Close-Up: Trinh T. Minh-ha
	Close-Up: Marva Nabili s Nightsongs (1984)
Iranian Accented Film Production and Reception
	Interstitial Production
		Close-Up: Ghasem Ebrahimians The Suitors (Khastegaran, 1989)
	Collective Exhibition and Exile Festivals
British Postcolonial Workshops and Collectives
Beur Cinema in France
4. Epistolarity and Epistolary Narratives
	Mode of Address
		Close-Up: Fernando Ezequiel "Pino" So/anas
		Close-Up: ChantalAkerman
	Inhibition and Prohibition
		Close-Up: Elia Suleiman
		Close-Up: Mona Hatoum
	Orality and Acousticity
	Calligraphic Texts
		Close-Up: Trinh T. Minh-has Surname Viet Given Name Nam (1985)
Telephonic Epistles
	Simultaneity, Multifocalityy and Paranoia
		Close-Up: Fernando Solanas's Tangos: Exile of Gardel (1985)
		Close-Up: Amir Naderts Manhattan by Numbers (1993)
		Close-Up: Atom Egoyans Calendar (1993)
		Close- Up: Jonas Mekas
		Close-Up: Chris Marker
5. Chronotopes of Imagined Homeland
Homeland's Utopian Chronotopes: Boundlessness, Timelessness
		Close-Up: Gregory Navas El Norte (1983)
Mountain, Monument
	Close-Up: Nizamettin Aric's A Song for Beko
Home Land
	Close-Up: Michel Khleifis Wedding in Galilee (Urs bil Galil 1987
	Close-Up: Amos Gitai's House (Bait, 1980)
	Close-Up: Andrei Tarkovsky
	Close-Up: Atom Egoyans The Adjuster (1991
Homeland as Prison
	Close-up: Yilmaz Guney
6. Chronotopes of Life in Exile: Claustrophobia, Contemporaneity
Exile as Prison
	Turkish Films in Germany
		Close-Up: Tevfik Baser
		Close-Up: Yilmaz Arslaris Passages (Langer Gang, 1992)
Iranian Filmmakers in Europe and the United States
	Close-Up: Sohrab Shahid Saless
	Close-Up: Houchang Allahyaris Fear of Heights (Hohenangst, 1994)
	Close-Up: Erica Jordan and Shirin Etessam ys Walls of Sand (1994)
	Close-Up: Jonas Mekass The Brig (1964
Thirdspace Play of Open and Closed Chronotopes
	Close-Up: Nina Menkes s The Great Sadness of Zohara (1983)
	Close-Up: Joris Ivenss A Tale of the Wind (Une histoire de vende, 1988)
7. Journeying, Border Crossing, and Identity Crossing
Journey and Journeying
	Home-Seeking Journey
	Journey of Homelessness
		Close-Up: Emir Kusturica's Time of the Gypsies (Dom za Vesanje, 1989
	Homecoming Journey
		Close-Up: Fernando Solanass South (Sur, 1988) andThe Journey (El Viaje, 1992)
		Close-Up: Ann Hms Song of the Exile (Ketu Qiuhen, 1990
Borders and Border Crossings
	Seaport and Airport
		Close-Up: Amir Naderiys The Runner (Davandeh, 1985
		Close-Up: Ghasem Ebrahimians The Suitors (Khastegaran, 1989)
	Border and Chicano Films
		Close-Up: Gregory Nava's El Norte (1983)
	Hotels and Motels
		Close-Up: Reza Allamehzadeh's The Guests of Hotel Astoria (Mehmanan-e Hotel-e Astoria, 1989)
		Close-Up: Atom Egoyans Speaking Parts (1989)
		Close-Up: Caveh Zahedis I Don't Hate Las Vegas Anymore (1994)
	Trains and Buses
		Close-Up: Par viz Sayyad's Checkpoint (Sarhad, 1987)
		Close-Up: Atom Egoyans Next of Kin (1984)
		Close-Up: Mitra Tabrizians The Third Woman (1991)
The Ethics and Politics of Performed Identity
	Diegetic Staging
	Doppelgangers, Doubling, Duplicity
		Close-Up: Miguel Littin s General Statement on Chile(Acta General de Chile, 1986)
	Film as Performance
		Close-Up: Atom Egoyan s Films as Performance of Identity
Appendix A
Appendix B
Document Text Contents
Page 2


Page 195


this globe and that which falls from the hand of a dying Charles Foster Kane
in Citizen Kane (1941). The Tarkovskian and Wellesian globes both fuse home
and childhood into one powerful monolith of terminal loss and permanent
homelessness in the world.

The quest for what Michael Dempsey calls "a lost harmony" (1981)—a
physical, natural, and spiritual home—is a key theme in Tarkovskys films, even
in the futuristic ones such as Stalker, in which the "Zone" and the "Room" may
be read as homeplaces of sorts. However, since this harmonious place always
harbors dangers and fears, return is impossible, intensifying the nostalgia for
it, which is expressed in the staging of return, either to nature or to homeland.
In Nostalgia, this restaging takes the form of the merging of the Russian home
into the Italian cathedral. The nostalgia for a lost harmony is influenced not
only by Tarkovsky's own philosophical and physical exile but also by a peculiar
"Russian nostalgia," which he describes as "the fatal attachment of Russians to
their national roots, their past, their culture, their native places, their families
and friends; an attachment which they carry with them all their lives, regardless
of where destiny may fling them" (1987, 202). Then, realizing the parallels
between his film and his own exile, he wonders, not with irony but with pro-
found sadness, the kind that feeds into his myth of the exilic auteur as martyr:
"How could I have imagined as I was making Nostalgia that the stifling sense
of longing that fills the screen space of that film was to become my lot for the
rest of my life; that from now until the end of my days I would bear the painful
malady within myself?" (202).

This discussion of house and home in the accented cinema has followed a
trajectory of increasing abstraction. In Gitai's House, there is a physical house,
but it is under renovation and its ownership has been in dispute; in Nostalgia,
the house exists either in memory, as an ideal place in the homeland and in
the past tense, or in the present tense in exile, but as a ruin. In the discussion
of Egoyans The Adjuster, the idea of the house is pushed up another level on
the scale of ruination and abstraction.

Close-Up: Atom Egoyans The Adjuster (1991)
House and home in Egoyans cinema are troubled places where the drama of
traumatized and dysfunctional nuclear families unfolds. Even in his Calendar,
which is about a real homeland, no house or home is in sight, and the photogra-
pher's relationship with his wife is in tatters. In The Adjuster, the house as a
solid, stable, or "real" structure disappears, to be replaced by either a cheap
motel or an ersatz "model home." Likewise, the family structure undergoes a
transformation from being based on descent and blood to one that is almost
entirely derived from consent and contract.

At the manifest level, the film is about two adjusters: Noah, an insurance
adjuster, and his wife, Hera, a film censor. They live in their model "dream
house" with Hera's sister and her daughter, who are recent Armenian immi-

Page 196


Figure 22. Film censor Arsinee Khanjian secretly records porno films in Atom Egoy-
an's The Adjuster. Courtesy Alliance International.

grants from Lebanon. Working nights, Noah appears at the site of burned-
down houses to help their owners process their insurance claims. He interviews
them, completes lists of objects and properties lost, collects photographs of
those items, and places the victims in a motel, where they stay awaiting new
housing. He further helps both the male and the female guests adjust to their
transitional condition by engaging in sexual relations with them in their hotel
rooms. Hera is a censor for a bureaucratized film board for which she views
hours of pornographic films. Using a hidden video camera during the films'
projection, she secretly tapes the most illicit sequences to take to her emigre
sister at home. These scenes are not shown to us, but we know about them by
their explicit sound track. By censoring films, Hera adjusts them to fit the
official codes and the public taste, and by screening them for her sister, she
helps to undermine them.

From the film's last shot we learn that the Noah-Hera nuclear family itself
is not a biologically constituted unit; rather, it is a "pseudofamily" composed
of people who had lost their homes in previous fires. However, it is not only
the family that is constructed and fake. Their house is a demonstration model,
and everything inside is for show and ersatz, including the prop books. In a
funny scene, Bubba, a maker of pornographic films, tours the house as a loca-

Page 390


Transitional spaces and sites, 152, 154, 257-
261. See also chronotopes of transition; ho-
tels and motels; third spaces

Translation, 213, 240; by film festivals, 83-87;
by films, 24, 25, 31, 119, 122, 125; by spec-
tators, 3-4, 124

Translators in the film, 136-139
Transnational cinema, 95
Transnational exiles, 13
Transnational films, 149
Transnational spaces, 243-248. See also borders
Travel, 5
Traveling aesthetics, 5
Traveling identity, 5, 238, 262-264; ethics of,

269-287, 282. See also identity
Travelogue, 147, 148, 278
Trevino, Jesus, 239
Trial motif films, 114-115
Trinh, T Minh-ha, 13,16,19, 21, 25, 29, 39,

61-62, 67-68, 81, 93, 111, 122, 287, 304-
304n.21, 346; calligraphic textuality of, 123-
125 (close-up), 127; and filming style, 123-
124; politics of location of, 70-72 (close-
up); and reactions to her films, 70-72

Trip to the Moon, A (1903), 218
TrufFault, Francois, 346
Tunisian accented filmmakers, 18
Tunnel The (1962), 314n.l3
Tunnels, 5, 157,188, 228, 240-243, 261
Turbulent (1998), 78
Turkey, 51, 78,161, 162, 181-187, 223, 249-

Turkish accented filmmakers, 13, 18, 54; in

Germany, 191-199, 279-280
Turkish cinema in exile, 191-199, 237
Turkish immigrants, 265-266; in Germany,

191-193, 206, 266
Turkish language, 3
Turkish patriarchy, 183,193, 195
Turner, Craig, 346
Turovskaya, Maya, 176, 309n.22, 346
Twain, Mark, 315n.29

Ukadike, Nwachukwu Frank, 296n.l0,
304n.l8, 347

Ukraine, 53
Umut (1971), 181
Underground (1995), 226, 260
Under Siege (19S2), 118, 198
Under the Rubble (1983), 304n.l4
Unfinished Diary (1986), 50, 276


United Nations, 347
United Nations High Commissioner for Refu-

gees, 347
United States, 33, 63, 78, 95, 141,165,190,

205, 206, 214, 223, 237, 240, 245, 287; de-
mographic changes of, 61; emigre's contri-
bution to cinema of, 7-8; film festivals in,
84-85; filmmakers working in, 66, 68, 71,
200, 208-210, 210-216s; illegal immigra-
tion to, 157; immigration to, 142, 157,
238-239, 246, 250; role in financing IMF
and World Bank, 40-41

United States-Mexican border, 239-243
Universal, the, and relation to the local, 82-82
Utopia (1982), 29, 78, 199-206, 313n.6
Utopian, 26
Utopian chronotopes, 155, 220

Vagabonde (1986), 302n.44
Valdez, Luis, 239
Valente, Judith, 313n.6, 347
Vallejo, Cesar, 106
Valot, Jacques, 347
Van Wert, William F , 299n.3, 347
Varda, Agnes, 19; and epistolarity, 103, 110-

Veil, 210, 246-247
Veiled look, 314n.l6
Veiled Threat (1989), 53, 77, 80
Veiling, of identity, 283; and unveiling of,

283, 286
Verhovek, Sam Howe, 240, 347
Vertigo (1958), 150
Victimhood, 89,158, 162, 242, 251, 261
Video: distribution of, 91-92; as epistle, 101,

120,132,136-139; and mediation, 252-
253, 276; and sexuality, 139-140

Videoconferencing, 132,139-140, 252-253
Video within film, 139-140, 263
Vidler, Anthony, 347
Vietnam, 123, 249
Vietnamese-Americans, 64, 72, 123-125
Vietnamese emigres, 94, 125
Vietnamese refugees, 78
Vincendeau, Ginnette, 42, 347
Viridiana (1961), 55
Visual Communications, 63-66
Visual style, 21, 23, 141. See also closed-form

chronotopes, open-form chronotopes
Vitafe: Running Water (1981), 65
Vlasenko, Georgii, 308n.l2

Page 391


Voice, 24
Voice-over, 24-26, 144-145, 146,147, 229-

230, 235, 263, 303n.4, 315n.36
Voices of the Morning (1992), 127
Voskeritchian, Taline, 347
Vossooghi, Behrouz, 79
Voyeurism, 69, 113, 271; in Egoyan's films,

137,139,180, 252-253, 276

Waiting (1995), 166
Wakeman, John, 131, 174, 304n.l0, 306n.43,

Walden (1964-1969), 29,142,146, 278
Walker, Alice, 102
Walker Art Center, 111, 304n.l2, 347
Wall, Karen, 253, 347
Wall, The (1982), 29,185-187, 310n.33
Walls of Sand (1996), 78,189, 207, 208-210

(close-up), 238, 275
Walsh, Michael, 307n.47, 347
Wandering Jew, 216, 228
Wandering, journey of, 225, 237, 275
Wanderlust, 243. See also fernweh
Wang, Wayne, 16, 128
Wataridori: Birds of Passage (1976), 64
Watkins, Greg, 78
Watkins, Peter, 216
Wavelength (1966-67), 29, 213-214
Webcasting, 52. See also World Wide Web
Wedding The (1989), 237
Wedding in Galilee (1987), 52, 58-60, 125,

185, 298n.l3; financial profile of, 294 (Ap-
pendix B.2)

Weinraub, Bernard, 347
Welles, Orson, 178, 313n.l2
Wenders, Wim, 36, 227-228
Werckmeister, O. K., 219, 347
Westphal, Carl F. O., 188-189
Wexelblat, Alan, 347
White (1994), 140
White Balloon, The 1995), 301-302n.33
White Cat, Black Cat (1998), 226
Who Killed Vincent Chin? (1988), 16
Who's That Singing Over There (1980), 260
Wild Bunch, The (1969), 313n.l2
Wilde, Oscar, 315n.29
Wildflower: Women of South Lebanon (1988),

114, 115
Willemen, Paul, 170, 172, 297n.l7, 347

Williams, Allan, 298n.l4, 347
Williams, Carol J., 347
Williams, Lena, 347
Williams, Raymond, 26, 348
Williamson, Judith, 89, 348
Willie (1981), 248
Willis, Holly, 214, 348
Wings of Desire (1988), 36
Wise Little Black Fish, The (1980), 249
Women and confinement, 193-197, 199-202;

isolation of, 214-216; and return, 234-237;
and suitcase, 265-267. See also embodied
protest; gender

Women Make Movies (WMM), 17, 60-62
(close-up), 64, 208, 297n.5, 299nn.l7,18,
19, 20, 21, 22, and 23

Women's disorders, 188-189. See also acropho-
bia; agoraphobia; body; claustrophobia

Women's representation, 81-82, 98; in Baser's
films, 193-197; in Guney s films, 183-184;
in Shahid Saless's films, 199-202; in Var-
da's films, 110-111. See also Muslims

Wood, Michael, 348
Woolley, Benjamin, 348
World War II, 141
World Wide Web, as distributor of accented

films, 44, 62. See also the Internet; Webcasting
Writing with an accent, 23-24

Yari, Abbas, 254, 348
Yarovskaya, Marianna, 226, 348
Yiddish films, 7, 63
Yilmaz, Atif, 181
Y*/(1982), 54,181-187, 223, 257, 309n.32
Young, Josh, 302n.33, 348
Young Soul Rebel (1991), 89
Yugoslavia, 31, 226-227
Yung, 219, 348

Z (196), 315n.35
Zahedi, Caveh, 34, 49, 78, 253-257 (close-

up), 269, 274, 276-278, 282, 314nn.21, 22,
and 23, 315n.25

ZDF TV (Germany), 44, 59, 204
Zemmouri, Mahmoud, 96, 97
Zerda et les chants de Voubli, La (1982), 52
Zimmerman, Debra, 60-62
Ziv, Ilan, 305-306n.33

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