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TitleA New Guide To Italian Cinema
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
ISBN 139781403975652
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.1 MB
Total Pages249
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Contents
Preface and Acknowledgements
Remote History
1 Italy from Unification to World War I
	The Cultural Scene
	Origins of Italian Cinema
	Giovanni Pastrone's Cabiria and Gabriele D'Annunzio
	Divismo
2 The Fascist Years (1922–43)
	The Cultural Scene
	Film in Fascist Italy
	Alessandro Blasetti
	Mario Camerini and White Telephone Comedies
	Precursors of Neorealism
3 World War II
	The Cultural and Literary Roots of Neorealism
	Neorealism in Film
	Roberto Rossellini and Open City (1945)
4 Reconstruction and the Late '40s
	Film: The Late 1940s
5 The 1950s
	The Development of Neorealism
	The Visconti–Fellini Debate
	De Sica, Television, and Popular Film in the 1950s
6 The Early 1960s
	The Economic Boom
	Italian Cinema Boom
	Commedia all'italiana (Comedy Italian Style)
	The Spaghetti Western of Sergio Leone
7 The Later 1960s
	Art Cinema
	Roberto Rossellini
	Luchino Visconti
	Federico Fellini
	Michelangelo Antonioni
	Vittorio De Sica
	Art Cinema Newcomers
	Pier Paolo Pasolini
	Bernardo Bertolucci
8 The 1970s
	Film and Television in the 1970s and 1980s
	Comedies and Popular Cinema in the 1970s
	Political Film/Instant Movie
	The Poliziesco Crime Genre
	The Heirs to Italian Art Cinema
9 The 1980s and 1990s: A Changing Society
	The "New Italian Cinema"
	A Nostalgic Narrative
	Benigni's La vita è bella
10 The Next Millennium
	The Cultural Scene
	Italian Cinema in the New Millennium
Appendix 1: Short Introduction to Film Study
Appendix 2: Box Office
Appendix 3: The Major Directors
Appendix 4: Italian Political Parties
Notes
Selected Bibliography
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Italian and Italian American Studies

Stanislao G. Pugliese
Hofstra University

Series Editor

This publishing initiative seeks to bring the latest scholarship in Italian and Italian
American history, literature, cinema, and cultural studies to a large audience of specialists,
general readers, and students. I&IAS will feature works on modern Italy (Renaissance to the
present) and Italian American culture and society by established scholars as well as new
voices in the academy. This endeavor will help to shape the evolving fields of Italian and
Italian American Studies by re-emphasizing the connection between the two. The following
esteemed senior scholars of the editorial board are advisors to the series editor.

REBECCA WEST JOHN A. DAVIS
University of Chicago University of Connecticut

FRED GARDAPHÉ PHILIP V. CANNISTRARO†

Stony Brook University Queens College and the Graduate School, CUNY

JOSEPHINE GATTUSO HENDIN VICTORIA DeGRAZIA
New York University Columbia University

Queer Italia: Same-Sex Desire in Italian Literature and Film
edited by Gary P. Cestaro
July 2004

Frank Sinatra: History, Identity, and Italian American Culture
edited by Stanislao G. Pugliese
October 2004

The Legacy of Primo Levi
edited by Stanislao G. Pugliese
December 2004

Italian Colonialism
edited by Ruth Ben-Ghiat and Mia Fuller
July 2005

Mussolini’s Rome: Rebuilding the Eternal City
Borden W. Painter Jr.
July 2005

Representing Sacco and Vanzetti
edited by Jerome H. Delamater and Mary Anne Trasciatti
September 2005

Carlo Tresca: Portrait of a Rebel
Nunzio Pernicone
October 2005

Italy in the Age of Pinocchio: Children and Danger in the Liberal Era
Carl Ipsen
April 2006

Page 124

her code of honor to the swinging 1960s of London. Pasolini voiced environmen-
tal concerns by decrying the effects of industrialization on Italy’s natural environ-
ment in a famous article about the disappearance of fireflies from the Italian
hinterland, an insect quite sensitive to air pollution.9 Part of Pasolini’s legend was
his ability to cut through ideology in his social commentary. When students occu-
pied the University of Rome in 1968, Pasolini expressed more solidarity for the
policemen than the students. Pasolini noted that the policemen desperately trying
to maintain order were mostly the sons of working-class families with little chance
of attending college. The students on the other hand had for the most part been
raised in privileged environments.10 The potential conspiracy theories surround-
ing Pasolini’s violent death allegedly at the hands of male prostitutes on a Roman
beach in 1975 are treated in Marco Tullio Giordana’s Pasolini, un delitto ital-
iano/Pasolini, an Italian Crime (1995).

The Ricotta/Cream Cheese episode of the multi-directed Ro.Go.Pag. (1963)
offers a synthesis of many of Pasolini’s favorite themes, in particular the contrast
between archaic Catholicism and post–economic boom Italy (figure 7.2). With
Ricotta/Cream Cheese, Pasolini invents a film about a film production of Christ’s
Passion directed by Orson Welles, during a period in which Welles was having
trouble finding producers for his films. In Cream Cheese, an extra playing one of
the thieves to be crucified with Jesus on Mount Calvary actually dies on the cross
on the set, apparently of a stroke provoked by the fact that he had not eaten lunch.
With this character, as with the protagonists of Accattone and Mamma Roma

THE LATER 1960S 109

Figure 7.2 Still from Pier Paolo Pasolini’s La ricotta/Cream Cheese.

Page 125

(1962), a melodrama starring Anna Magnani as a prostitute who aspires to mid-
dle-class stability by seeking a raise in class status for her indolent son, Pasolini
presents an ironic martyr for the cultural authenticity and primitiveness of the
lower-class inhabitants of the Roman periphery. Cream Cheese lampoons the con-
tradiction between the baroque imagery of stills for the Passion produced by the
film crew and the Gospel’s actual message of poverty and spirituality. In ideologi-
cal terms, another instructive example of the infiltration of 1960s iconoclastic
ideology in a Pasolini film is Teorema (1968), in which Terence Stamp plays a mys-
terious stranger who destroys the paternal order of a Milanese industrialist’s
household by seducing each member of the family.

Bernardo Bertolucci

Bernardo Bertolucci (1940–) started his film career with La commare secca/The
Grim Reaper (1962) based on a story by Pasolini.11 He also contributed to the
screenplay of Leone’s re-reading of the western Once Upon a Time in the West
(1968). But Bertolucci’s breakthrough film was a re-examination of Rossellini’s or
Antonioni’s middle-class alienation tales though the eyes of a male baby boomer
in Prima della rivoluzione/Before the Revolution (1964). The film echoed the stylis-
tic and narrative style of such French New Wave directors as Jean Luc Godard and
established the young Bertolucci as an art film director. In the film a bourgeois
youth considers rebellion and piddles with incest but eventually seems resigned to
his heritage and destiny, a storyline Bertolucci would repeat in later films.

Initially Bertolucci seemed unable to move beyond the influences he took from
this style of filmmaking. His next film Partner (1968) is based on a Fyodor
Dostoevsky story, and Amore e rabbia/Love and Anger (1969) is an episodic film
with contributions by Pasolini and Goddard, which exemplify the revolutionary
and iconoclastic period in which they were made. Bertolucci’s later films opt for a
more expressionistic cinematography. He moved beyond the themes of rebellion,
incest, and acceptance of class to examine Italy’s Fascist past with an adaptation of
Alberto Moravia’s novel Il conformista/The Conformist (1970), Spider Stratagem
(1972), La Luna (1979), Novecento/1900 (1976), and the Oscar winning biopic of
the last Chinese emperor Pu Yi, L’ultimo imperatore/The Last Emperor (1987).
Bertolucci wisely relied upon the brilliant cinematography of Vittorio Storaro
whose formalism extends to the point of using color-tinted lenses, a technique
used in such Hollywood musicals as Vincent Minelli’s An American in Paris (1951)
and Joshua Logan’s South Pacific (1958) later used by Storaro as cinematographer
on Apocalypse Now (1979), Francis Ford Coppola’s Vietnam-era adaptation of
Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of Darkness.

Bertolucci’s most acclaimed and controversial film was Last Tango in Paris
(1972). Bertolucci ably filled the film with numerous metacinematic references
such as the casting of Massimo Girotti, a leading man from Italian film of the
1940s in such films as Visconti’s Obsession (1943) and Germi’s In the Name of the
Law (1949), as an aging neighbor obsessed with physical fitness, a metacinematic
citation of the decline of the star system of which Girotti had been a part.

110 GUIDE TO ITALIAN CINEMA

Page 248

Salgari, Emilio 12, 93
Salvatores, Gabriele 130, 135, 139, 148,

151, 158, 183, 184, 186
Samperi, Salvatore 116, 178, 179
Sandrelli, Stefania 117, 125, 145, 153
Sanguinetti, Edoardo 90
Santesso, Walter 77
Santoni, Dante 9
Sanzio, Raffaello (Raphael) xiii, 166
Saussure, Ferdinand 166
Savonarola, Girolamo 146
Scarpelli, Furio 88
Scelba, Mario 67
Scerbanenco, Giorgio 124
Scherfig, Lone 157
Schmidt, Roswita 36
Schneider, Maria 111
Schwarzenegger, Arnold 13
Sciascia, Leonardo 3, 119, 133, 144
Sclavi, Tiziano 98
Scola, Ettore 8, 70, 119, 123, 125, 135,

158, 162, 163, 176, 177, 179, 182, 183,
200, 202

Seghezzi, Barbara 159
Segni, Antonio 67
Sellers, Peter 105
Serena, Gustavo 16
Severgnini, Beppe 145
Shakespeare, William 149
Shepard, Sam 104
Sienkiewicz, Henryk 10, 13
Silone, Ignazio 43, 55, 72, 84
Simonelli, Giorgio 31, 173, 174, 176
Sindona, Michele 119
Soavi, Michele 147, 182
Socrates 146
Soldati, Mario 38, 84, 91, 173
Soldini, Silvio 157, 186
Solinas, Franco 70
Sollima, Sergio 177, 179
Sonengo, Rodolfo 90
Sophocles 198
Sordi, Alberto 91, 92, 130, 131, 133, 137,

161, 167, 177, 180, 181, 197
Spadolini, Giovanni 127
Spartacus xi
Spengler, Oswald 21
Spenser, Bud (Carlo Pedersoli) 117
Spielberg, Stephen 106
Squittieri, Pasquale 119, 129, 180

St. Anthony of Padua xiii
St. Francis of Assisi xi, xiii, 98
St. Thomas Acquinas 99
Stalin, Joseph 27, 67
Staller, Ilona 117
Stamp, Terrence 103, 110
Steinbeck, John 43
Stelle, Barbara 87
Stendhal, (Henri Beyle) 42, 100
Steno (Stefano Vanzina) 69, 117, 132,

173, 178–181
Stevens, George 94
Storaro, Vittorio 87, 110, 138
Storm, Gale 60
Stregani, Giorgio 176
Strehler, Giorgio 98
Stuart, Kim Rossi 156
Sturzo, Don 20
Svevo, Italo 26, 151

Tabucchi, Antonio 144
Tamaro, Susanna 144
Tavazzi, Alberto 50
Taviani, (Vittorio and Paolo) 118,

126
Taylor, Sam 174
Teghil, Alice
Tellini, Piero 69, 80
Teodoro, Ernesto 5
Tessari, Ducio 176
Thomas, Terry 107
Tiepolo, Giambattista xiii
Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) xiii
Tito, Josip Broz 42
Togliatti, Palmiro 40, 42, 53, 65, 68, 72,

73, 114
Tognazzi, Ricky 134, 183, 185
Tognazzi, Ugo 87, 90, 93, 118, 197
Tolstoy, Alexei 126
Tomasulo, Frank 65
Tornatore, Giuseppe 135–138, 147, 149,

183–185
Torre, Roberta 147, 167
Totò – See De Curtis, Antonio
Tozzi, Federico 151
Tracey, Spenser 136
Trieste, Leopoldo 137
Trintignant, Jean Louis 90, 91
Troisi, Massimo 131, 135, 146, 158, 167,

180–183

INDEX 233

Page 249

Truffaut, Francois 99, 105, 111
Tyler, Liv 149

Ungaretti, Giuseppe 24, 26

Vadim, Roger 102, 137
Vadja, Ladislaus 174
Valerii, Tonino 95, 177, 178
Valli, Alida 36, 68, 74, 80
Vallone, Raf 57
Vancini, Florestano 3, 22, 93, 119, 123
Vanzi, Luigi 175
Vanzina, Carlo 132, 133, 180–186
Vanzina, Enrico 132, 133
Vanzina, Stefano see Steno
Varaldo, Alessandro 43
Vasari, Giorgio 165
Vecellio, Tiziano (Titian) xiii
Verasani, Grazia 151
Verdi, Giuseppe xiii, xiv, 61, 124
Verdone, Carlo 100, 130, 133, 152, 158,

167, 180, 182–187, 196
Verdone, Luca 182
Verga, Giovanni 8, 34, 42, 55, 74
Vergano, Aldo 28, 46, 57, 121, 171
Vernier, Massimo 186
Veronesi, Giovanni 146, 152, 183–186
Vicario, Marco 117, 176–178
Victor Emmanuel II 2, 3, 19
Victor Emmanuel III 21, 39, 40, 42, 47, 124
Vidali, Enrico 10
Vidor, King 60, 69, 173
Viganò, Renata 43
Vigo, Jean 111
Villaggio, Paolo 99, 130, 131, 133
Virzì, Carlo 153
Virzì, Paolo 130, 152–155, 158, 185, 186
Visconti, Lucchino 4, 27, 35, 36, 56–58,

64, 70, 72, 74, 75, 80, 85–87, 91, 92,

101, 105–108, 110, 117, 119,
121, 136, 137, 153, 158, 163,
166, 168, 173, 175–177, 179,
191, 192, 201

Vitali, Alvaro 116
Vitti, Monica 82, 108, 161
Vittorini, Elio 25, 43, 55, 72, 84, 90
Volontè, Gian Maria 119, 120, 133
Volponi, Paolo 98

Wagner, Richard 101
Waits, Tom 150
Wallach, Eli 150
Wayne, John 74, 136
Welles, Orson 58, 99, 105, 109
Wellman, William 157
Wenders, Wim 184
Wertmüller, Lina 87, 125, 126, 133, 147,

158, 178, 179, 182, 183, 202
Wilson, Woodrow 6, 84
Wojtyla, Karol – See John Paul II
Wollen, Peter 104, 166
Wyler, William 86

Yi, Pu 110
Young, Terence 178

Zampa, Luigi 27, 42, 46, 91, 123,
171–173, 175, 177, 178

Zavattini, Cesare 27, 29, 34, 35, 44, 48,
58–65, 70–72, 74, 78, 131, 138, 139,
162, 190, 193

Zeffirelli, Franco 147–149, 177
Zeglio, Primo 171
Zingarelli, Italo 180
Zingaretti, Luca 145, 151
Zinneman, Fred 103
Zola, Emile 8
Zurlini, Valerio 117, 178

234 INDEX

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