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TitleA Handbook of Sustainable Building Design and Engineering
PublisherEarthscan
ISBN 139786000015824
LanguageEnglish
File Size9.3 MB
Total Pages475
Table of Contents
                            Contents
List of Figures, Tables and Boxes
List of Contributors
Preface
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Part I INTRODUCTION TO COMPLEX BUILT ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS
	Introduction: Setting the Scene
		References
	Chapter 1 Building Sustainable Communities: Combining Social and Physical Perspectives
		Introduction
		Background: What is a sustainable community?
		A multidisciplinary research strategy
		Investigating the role of space in the construction of place
		Reflections on processes and outcomes
		Considerations
		Acknowledgements
		Notes
		References
Part II ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
	Introduction: Towards Zero Carbon Buildings
	Chapter 2 Energy Efficiency and Thermal Envelope
		Energy efficiency of buildings
		Energy-saving buildings
		Construction materials
		Building envelope
		Advanced construction layer
		Summary
		References
	Chapter 3 Energy Monitoring and Labelling
		Introduction
		Energy assessment methodologies
		Monitoring heating energy consumption
		Energy labelling of heating energy consumption
		Monitoring cooling energy consumption
		Energy and microclimatic labelling
		References
	Chapter 4 Energy Modelling
		Introduction
		Energy modelling tools
		Application in energy efficient buildings
		Challenges in thermal building engineering
		Recent initiatives and outlook
		Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 5 Carbon Reduction in Buildings
		Introduction
		Carbon reduction issues to be considered at the early stages of design
		Methods of approach to reduce carbon emissions
		Some examples of passive houses in Hannover, Germany
	Chapter 6 Renewable Energy Sources and the City
		Introduction
		What energy services will be required?
		Energy resources and technologies
		Planning and implementation
		Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 7 Heat Pumps in City Centre Buildings
		Introduction
		Thermodynamics of the heat pump
		Ground source heat pumps in city centre buildings
		References
	Chapter 8 Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings
		Introduction
		The evolution and standardization of the life cycle assessment method
		Goal and scope of life cycle assessment
		The methodology of life cycle assessment
		Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 9 Energy and Environmental Monitoring
		Introduction
		Research methodology
		Supplementary research: Indoor environment and mould
		Discussion
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 10 Energy Modelling
		Introduction
		Forecasting energy use and CO2 emissions
		Domestic Energy and Carbon Dioxide Model (DECARB)
		The illustrative scenarios
		Results of the illustrative scenarios
		Conclusions
		Notes
		References
	Chapter 11 Energy Efficient Refurbishment of Dwellings: A Policy Context
		Introduction
		The German policy landscape
		Case study: Modernization of dwellings in north Germany
		Conclusions
		References
Part III BUILDINGS AND ENVIRONMENT
	Introduction: Emerging Design Challengesof the 21st Century
	Chapter 12 Urban Climate: Impacts on Energy Use, Comfort and Health
		Introduction
		Modifying factors
		Energy use
		Health and comfort
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 13 Air Pollution and the Urban Built Environment
		Introduction
		Urban air-quality management areas
		Airflow and concentration patterns in complex built environments
		Relationships between outdoor and indoor air pollution
		Modelling air pollution in urban buildings
		References
	Chapter 14 Ventilation, Thermal Comfort, Health and Productivity
		Introduction
		Thermal environment
		Indoor air quality
		Economic implications
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 15 Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Modelling
		Introduction
		Types of application
		Types of models
		Validation and testing
		Creating the model
		Output and analysis
		Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 16 Moisture Control in Buildings
		Introduction
		Terminology
		Water vapour in the air
		Air and moisture scale
		Moisture sources
		Moisture damage
		Moisture displacement
		Moisture modelling
		Moisture-resilient design
		Case studies
		References
	Chapter 17 Natural Ventilation in City Centre Buildings
		Introduction
		Theoretical background
		Design requirements and site analysis
		Developing a ventilation design strategy
		Design performance evaluation
		Detailed design
		Installation, commissioning and post-occupancy evaluation
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 18 Mechanical and Mixed-Mode Ventilation in City Centre Buildings
		Principles of mechanical and mixed-mode ventilation
		Ventilation systems for residential buildings
		Ventilation systems for non-residential buildings
		Ventilation system components
		Basic design principles of ventilation
		References
	Chapter 19 Climate Change and Building Design
		Introduction
		Climate change and temperature
		Climate change and precipitation
		Climate change and wind
		Climate change and subsidence
		Conclusions
		References
	Chapter 20 Sustainable Cooling Strategies
		Introduction
		Developing the sustainable cooling strategy
		Reduction and modulation of heat gains
		Direct and indirect ventilative cooling
		Cooling energy from renewable sources
		Sustainable distribution systems
		Low-energy cooling technologies
		Cooling potential of sustainable cooling techniques
		Case study: School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) building
		Case Study: Portcullis House
		Case Study: Swiss Re Tower
		Case Study: National Assembly for Wales – the Senedd
		Case Study: National Trust Headquarters – Heelis Building
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 21 Indoor Air Quality in City Centre Buildings
		Introduction
		Airflow in the urban environment
		Hybrid ventilation systems
		Experimental indoor/outdoor air quality and ventilation studies in urban buildings
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 22 Indoor Air Quality and Health
		Introduction: House dust mites, housing and health
		Study design and methodology
		Study results
		Modelling techniques
		Discussion
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 23 Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Modelling
		Introduction
		Airflow and pollution distribution around buildings
		Airflow and pollution in buildings
		Acknowledgements
		References
Part IV OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS
	Introduction: The Post-Occupancy Evaluation
	Chapter 24 Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Buildings
		Introduction
		Benchmarking
		Design approach
		Investigating a problem
		Physical performance evaluation
		Energy performance
		Human factors
		Monitoring plan
		Example: Energy performance assessments
		References
	Chapter 25 Occupant Behaviour and Energy Use
		Introduction
		Examples from the UK domestic sector
		Discussion
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 26 Natural Ventilation of Auditoria: Three Case Studies
		Introduction
		The Queens Building, De Montfort University
		The Contact Theatre, Manchester
		The Lichfield Garrick
		Design guidance
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 27 A Naturally Ventilated Building in a City Centre
		Introduction
		Description of the building
		Performance evaluation
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgements
		References
	Chapter 28 Impact of an Energy Refurbishment Programme in Chile: More than Energy Savings
		Introduction
		Background information
		Design of a prioritized refurbishment programme
		Potential programmes
		Conclusions
		References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 238

the equations of conservation of heat and mass are
applied.

Each type has advantages and disadvantages. For some
applications, where both energy and pollution
concentrations are required, a combination of different
approaches may be necessary. In this chapter we will
focus on the use of airflow and contaminant models, as
well as integrated thermal and airflow models. Examples
of such models are CONTAMW (NIST, 2008), and
Energy Plus (EERE, 2008). A comprehensive list of
building energy and ventilation tolls can be found in the
Building Energy Software Tools Directory (BESTD,
2008).

Multi-zone indoor air quality and ventilation tools
are typically designed to predict:

• whole building infiltration and ventilation rates
due to mechanical systems, wind pressure and
stack effects, and airflow between zones;

• the concentration of pollutants from both internal
and external sources in each zone, as well as the
transport of pollutants between zones (the
predicted concentrations may then be used to
estimate occupant and artefact exposure to these
contaminants).

Validation and testing
As with all simulation models, it is important that
testing and validation studies are carried out to inform
potential users of the confidence they can place on the
results of such models and to identify and solve possible
sources of error. Multi-zone airflow and contaminant
models have been subject to some validation and
comparison exercises (Fiirbringer et al, 1996). It should
be noted that the level of effort and instrumentation
required to produce experimental data of sufficient
quality to test ventilation models is a challenge even in
highly controlled and monitored environmental
chambers.

It is, however, important to note the need for
further validation work under a wider range of weather
conditions and for a varied range of both systems and
applications. Analytical tests, comparing simulation
results with exact analytical solutions, are possible;
however, they are limited to only the most simple of

multi-zone buildings. A series of inter-model
comparisons between a number of software tools have
been undertaken to allow the relative consistency
between models to be assessed. Empirical validation
against experimental data has also been carried out for
a small number of cases (Emmerich, 2001). Such
studies conclude that a knowledgeable user can make
reasonable predictions of air change rates and
contaminant concentrations for residential-scale
buildings.

Creating the model
As with all simulation tools, the reliability of the output
of ventilation and contaminant models is intrinsically
governed by the quality of input data used. The input
required in order to model the airflow and subsequent
contaminant concentrations in a building can be
broken down into the following subgroups.

Building dimensions and orientation

The volume and floor area of each zone to be modelled
are required, as are the heights of each floor and the
orientation of each façade.

Weather file

The simulation is driven by a steady-state or transient
weather file, usually with hourly resolution. This file
includes external temperature and relative humidity,
wind speed and direction, and external pollutant
concentration. As with weather files used to drive
thermal and energy building-simulation tools, test
reference years for particular locations may be
employed. Historical hourly external pollution data
from networks of automatic monitoring sites can now
be readily downloaded to create external pollution
concentration input files.

Openings and flow elements

Details must be given of the cracks, openings and
ventilation through and for which the airflow will be
calculated. Openings and cracks may be defined in
terms of an opening area and discharge coefficient or by
a flow exponent and flow coefficient.

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